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胡同口 > 院校 > 南京同传翻译有限公司 > 英文合同的特点 (2)

英文合同的特点 (2)

翻译达人 发表于:08-06-24 08:38
另外,由于hereof既可以用来表示in/of this agreement,也可以用来表示in/of this clause。因此,在阅读的时候一定要注意hereof具体指“本协议”还是指“本条款”。如果不清楚,建议写成in/of this agree—ment或in/of this clause。也可以通过加上具体的条款来避免这种不确定性,比如:Except in the case of breach of this AGREEMENT by PARTY A or termination of this AGREEMENT as provided in Section l..—her—eof,any and all payments of amounts due under this AGREEMENT are non•-refund•。able(除甲方违反本协议、或本协议按照其第1.1条规定的情形被终止,本协议项TN期应付的所有款项均不退还)。在这个例子中,hereof就表示“本协议”。为了避免这个hereof指代不明,有时还会采取在合同中约定一个总的盖帽性的条款,写上诸如“The words‘herein’and‘hereunder’refer to this AGREEMENT as a whole and not merely to the Clauses or Schedule in which those words are used”(“herein”和“hereunder”指整个协议,而并非单指使用这些词的某些条款或附件),但这要非常小心,因为有时候很可能“herein”和“hereunder”仅指使用该词语的某个条款,而不是整个协议,如果在合同中加上这么一条总的条款,也会导致指代不明从而导致风险。
    (二)“普通词”转为“法言法语”
    中国从小学开始教授英文,但主要教授的是英文的普通用法,而对合同中常用的一些由普通词转化成“法言法语”的词则少有触及。比如,“shall”在我们的英文学习中往往只强调其“助动词表将来”的作用,而很少强调其“助动词表义务”这个功能,但合同中后一种用法比比皆是,前一种用法反而比较少见。例如,the Federation Internation—ale des Ingenieurs—Conseil(FIDIC)红皮书(国际工程标准合同)一个合同就用了751个“shall”,而EPC银皮书(国际工程标准合同)一个合同也用了690个“shall”,并且都是使用的“助动词表义务”这个词义。对这些由普通词转化而来的“法言法语”,笔者将在下面分别予以详述:
    1.“shall,’
    “shall”用在合同中,同样是助动词,后面跟实意动词,表示“……有义务做某事”、“……得做某事”、“……应做某事”等,强调法律上的一种义务,违反这种义务就意味着违约。只有在极少数情况下用“…shall have the right t0…”或“…shall be entitled t0…”,表示“……有权做某事”。当然,“must”也可以用来表示“必须”,但其“法言法语”意味远没有“shall”浓厚,因此,在日常的英文合同中,“shall”更多地得到律师和法官的偏爱。
    例1①1.7 Neither Party—sh—all assign the whole of any part of the Con—tract or any benefit or interest in or under the Contract.合同任何一方均不堡将本合同的全部或任何部分,或本合同中规定的或根据本合同所具有的任何利益或权益转让给他人
  9 Confidentiality
    Both Parties—sh—all treat the details of the Contract as private and confidential,except to the extent necessary to carry out obligations under it or to comply with applicable Laws
The Contractor shall not publish,permit to be
 punished,or disclose any particulars of the Works in any trade or technical paper or elsewhere without the previous agreement of the Employer.
    合同双方应将合同各种细节详情视为秘密,但为履行本合同义务或遵守适用的法律所必需的除外。没有雇主事先同意,承包商丕堡在任何商务往来或技术论文或其他场合发表或允许(他人)发表或透露工程的任何细节。
 (9 The Contractor shall keep,on the Site,a copy of the Contract,publications named in the Specification.the Contractor’S documents(1f any).the Drawings and Variations and other communications given under
the Contract.The Employer’S Personnel shall have the right of access to all these documents at all reasonable times.
    承包商皮在现场保留一份合同的复印件、规范中列出的所有文件、承包商的文件(如有)、图纸和变更以及其他根据合同收发的往来信函。雇主工作人员廑有权
在任何合理时间查看和使用所有这些文件。
  The Contractor shall disclose all such confidential and other information as the Engineer may reasonably require in order to verify the Contractors compliance with the Contract.
    承包商应按照工程师的合理要求披露这些保密事项和其他情况,以证实其确实遵守合同。
  例3②If the contract is avoided and there is a current price for the goods.the party claiming damages may,if he has not made a purchase or
 resale under article 75,recover the difference between the price fixed by the contract and the current price at the time of avoidance as well as any further damages recoverable under article 74.If,however,the party claiming damages has avoided the contract after taking over the goods,the
 current price at the time of such taking over shall be applied instead of the
 current price at the time of avoidance.
    如果合同被宣告无效,而货物又有时价,要求损害赔偿的一方,如果没有根据第75条规定进行购买或转卖,则可以取得合同规定的价格和宣告合同无效时的时价之间的差额以及按照第74条规定可以取得的任何其他损害赔偿。但是,如果要求损害赔偿的一方在接收货物之后宣告合同无效,则廑适用接收货物时的时价,而不适用宣告合同无效时的时价。
    例4  By written notice to the SELLER,the BUYER REPRESENTATIVE may at any time delegate any of his authority to any nominated deputy.Such notice shall specify the precise authority of any such deputy and shall be sent to the SELLER REPRESENTATIVE.
    买方代表可以在任何时候书面通知卖方将其权力授权给指定的代理人。但这种授权通知应指明该代理人的确切权力,并应送交卖方代表。
    2.“must’’
    当然,今天有些律师开始提倡使用朴素的合同语言,而不是律师所惯常使用的法言法语,因此“must”使用的频率逐渐上升。比如《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》就使用了35个“must”,而只有六处使用了“shall”。
    例1①The seller must deliver the goods,hand over any documents relating to{hem and transfer the property in the goods。as required by the
contract and this Convention.
    卖方必须按照合同和本公约的规定交付货物,移交一切与货物有关的单据并转移货物所有权。    ,
  例2②  (1)If the seller,in accordance with the contract or this Con—vention.hands the goods over to a carrier and.f the goods are not clearly i_ dentified to the contract by markings on the goods,by shipping documents or otherwise,the seller must give the buyer notice of the consignment specifying the goods.
  (2)lf the seller is bound to arrange for carriage of the goods,he—must make such contracts as are necessary for carriage to the place fixed by means of transportation appropriate in the circumstances and according to the usual terms for such transportation.
    (1)如果卖方按照合同或本公约的规定将货物交付给承运人,但货物没有以货物上加标记,或以装运单据或其他方式清楚地注明有关合同,卖方必须向买方发出列明货物的发货通知。
    (2)如果卖方有义务安排货物的运输,他必须订立必要的合同,以按照通常运输条件,用适合情况的运输工具,把货物运到指定地点。
  不过,《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》是多国博弈的结果,比如在货物所有权转移问题上,《公约》第4条(b)款明确予以排除,主要是考虑到世界各国对所有权问题的规定分歧太大,无法协调和统一。另外,为了这个合同能够在更广范围内得到适用,合同在语言使用上肯定会比较白话一些。但现实生活中,英国和美国的律师在起草合同时如果想要表示“一方有义务做某事”,还是较少使用“must”,而更多地使用“shall”。
    另外,还应该看到,由于美国英语和英国英语以及其他国家的英语对“shall”和“will”的意义在理解上存在差别,因此,为了表明主文条款中的内容都是合同方的意愿,而非表示某个将来的动作或者状态,一般会在合同“whereas部分”结束后出现“Therefore,the Parties agree as follows”或“It is therefore agreed as follows”。这样,即使主文条款中用了“Party A will”也表明该合同方愿意受到本合同约束的意志。
    3.“where”
    英文合同中的“where”和普通英文中的“where”通常都引导状语从句,但意义差别较大。在英文合同中,“where”引导的状语从句,常用来限定合同“当事人在什么情况下应为或不为什么事”,译为“在……时”、“当……时”或“……的”(相当于汉语中的“‘的’字结构”),汉语意义看似类似于英文的“when”,但“where”引导的不是表示时间,而是表示一种状况,有时可以用“if’,等表示条件的词来代替。
  例1  Where notice of dissatisfaction has been given under Sub-clause 20.4 above,both Parties shall attempt to settle the dispute amicably
 before the commencement of arbitration...
    地呈已经按照上述第20.4款发出了表示不满的通知,双方应在着手仲裁前,努力以友好方式来解决争端……
  例2 Article 35(2)Except w—he—re the parties have agreed otherwise,the goods do not conform with the contract unless they are contained or
 packaged in the manner usual for such goods or,w—he—re there is no such
 manner,in a manner adequate to preserve and protect the goods.
    第35条(2)除非货物按照同类货物通用的方式装箱或包装,或塑里没有此种通用方式,则按照足以保全和保护货物的方式装箱或包装,否则,货物即为与合同不符,但合同方另有约定的除外。
    “where the parties have agreed otherwise”就表示“合同方另有约定的情况”,而“where there is no such manner”则表示“没有这种通用方式的情况”。Article 55 Where a contract has been validly concluded but does not expressly or implicitly fix or make provision for determining the pnce,the parties are considered,in the absence of any indication to the contrary,to have impliedly made reference to the price generally charged at the time of the conclusion of the contract for such goods sold under comparable clr’cumstances in the trade concerned.
    第55条如果合同已有效地订立,但没有明示或暗示地规定价格或规定如何确定价格,在没有任何相反表示的情况下,双方当事人应视为已默示地引用订立合同时此种货物在相关交易的类似情况下销售的通常价格0
    “Where a contract has been validly concluded but does not expressly or implicitly fix or make provision for determining the price”表示“合同已经有效订立,但没有明示或暗示地规定价格或规定如何确定价格”这种情况。“Where”在这里用“if’来代替也可以表达出合同方的意图。
例3  Where a foreigner,enterprise applies for trademark registration in China,the matter shall be handled in accordance with any agreement con‘cluded between the country to which the applicant belongs and the People’S Republic of China,or any international treaty to which both countries are parties,or on the basis of the principle ot reciprocity.
    外国人或者外国企业在中国申请商标注册盟,应当按其所属国和中华人民共和国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约办理,或者按对等原则办理。
4.“advise’’“advise’’在日常英语中表示“建议”,但在英文合同中出现时,常表示“通知”,和“notify”很多时候可以互换。
The Seller shall advise the Buyer all the information with regard to the Bill of Lading after the goods boarding on the ship.卖方应在货物装载上船后就有关提单事项的所有信息i蚴买方。
    例2  Buyer shall advise Seller of the nomination of the vessel and—ad- vise documentation instructions by written notice to Seller at least 5 working days prior to the l 8‘day of above loading date range for Seller’S review and acceptance.
    买方应就指定船只通翅卖方,并且在货物装载期间的第l天前提前5天书面通知卖方各种文件指示说明,以供卖方审核接受。
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小草188 发表于:08-06-24 09:22 0
2

又有好东西学习了,谢谢。
英文合同的特点 (2)
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bienleaf 发表于:08-06-24 10:46 0
3

特专业的资料
对偶今后翻译合同类会很有帮助的,收藏之
谢啦


翻译达人 发表于:08-06-24 11:22 0
4

 Article 55 Where a contract has been validly concluded but does not

expressly or implicitly fix or make provision for determining the price,the

parties are considered,in the absence of any indication to the contrary,to

have impliedly made reference to the price generally charged at the time of

the conclusion of the contract for such goods sold under comparable cir-cumstances in the trade concerned.

    第55条如果合同已有效地订立,但没有明示或暗示地规定价格或规定如何确定价格,在没有任何相反表示的情况下,双方当事人应视为已默示地引用订立合同时此种货物在相关交易的类似情况下销售的通常价格

    “Where a contract has been validly concluded but does not expressly or

implicitly fix or make provision for determining the price”表示“合同已经有

效订立,但没有明示或暗示地规定价格或规定如何确定价格”这种情况。“Where”在这里用“if’来代替也可以表达出合同方的意图。

    例3  Where a foreigner,enterprise applies for trademark registration in

China,the matter shall be handled in accordance with any agreement con‘

cluded between the country to which the applicant belongs and the People’s

Republic of China,or any international treaty to which both countries are

parties,or on the basis of the principle ot reciprocity.

    外国人或者外国企业在中国申请商标注册盟,应当按其所属国和中华人民共和国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约办理,或者按对等原则办理。

4.“advise’’

“advise’’在日常英语中表示“建议”,但在英文合同中出现时,常表示“通知”,和“notify”很多时候可以互换。

    例l The Seller shall advise the Buyer all the information with regard to

the Bill of Lading after the goods boarding on the ship.

    卖方应在货物装载上船后就有关提单事项的所有信息通知买方。

    例2  Buyer shall advise Seller of the nomination of the vessel and advise documentation instructions by written notice to Seller at least 5 working

days prior to the l 8‘day of above loading date range for Seller’s review and

acceptance.

    买方应就指定船只通翅卖方,并且在货物装载期间的第l天前提前5天书面通知卖方各种文件指示说明,以供卖方审核接受。

    Party is not the appropriate agency to comply with a request for assistance,it shall transmit the request to the appropriate agency.and seek the cooperation of that agency.The requesting Customs administration shall be so advised...

    如被请求方海关当局并非执行某项协助请求的合适部门,该海关当局应将该项请求转送有关部门并谋求该部门的合作。此情况应通知请求方海关当局……

  Article l 0(2)The requested Customs administration shall,if it SO requests,be advised of the time and place of the action to be taken in response to the request SO that such action may be coordinated.

    如请求方海关当局要求,被请求方海关当局应将为执行协助请求而采取行动的时间及地点通知请求方海关当局,以协调该行动。

  例4①No work shall be carried out on the Site on locally recognized days of rest,or outside normal working hours,unless:

    (C)the work is unavoidable,or necessary for the protection of life or

property or for the safety of the Works,in which case the Contractor shall immediately advise the Employer.

    承包商不得在当地公认的休息日或正常工作时间之外开展工作,除非:

 

    (C)该项工作是为了保护生命财产或为了工程安全而无法避免或必须开展的,但在这种情况下,承包商应立即通知雇主。

    伊f 5 The BUYER shall have the right at any time within the duration of the PURCHASE ORDER to make any changes in the PURCHASE ORDER by additions,deletions,substitutions,modifications or revisions theret0.The BUYER shall advise the SELLER of such changes by issuing written instructions in accordance with the Administration PROCEDURES.

    买方有权在本订单有效期内的任何时候对订单进行变更,包括增加、删减、替换、变更或修正。但买方应按照管理程序通过书面指示通知卖方所做的这些变更。

    仍I 6 The SELLER shall advise the BUYER if such requirements are in SELLER’S opinion,based on the information given by the BUYER,inadequate for the intended purpose of the Agreement.

    如果在卖方看来,基于买方提供的信息,这些要求不足以满足本协议所欲达到的目的,则卖方应通知买方。

  例7 0n the occurrence Of event of Force Majeure the party claiming to be affected thereby shall keep the other party fully advised of the detailed information thereof.

 

    如果发生不可抗力,声称遭受不可抗力影响的一方应让合同另一方全部知晓有关不可抗力的详细情况。

 

5.“save/except’’

 

    “save”在普通英语中常用作“挽救”、“节约”等意思,作动词用,但在英文合同中通常用作连词,表示“除……以外”,它与“except”的用法差不多,因此以下将这两个词放在一起来谈。 Save as aforesaid, words or expressions contained in this Attachment shall, bear the same meanings as in the Agreement.

 

除了前面所说,本附件中所有用词和表述与协议中的用词和表述意思相同。

 

   例 2  Except as expressly stated in the PURCHSE ORDER, the BUYER REPRESENTATIVE has no power to amend, extend or terminate the PURCHASE ORDER nor to waive any rights of the BUYER in respect of any antecedent breaches of the PURCHASE ORDER.


                                                                                                                                                                          ..

 

    除了本采购订单明确表示外,买方代表无权变更、延长或终止本采购订

单.也无权放弃买方享有的因卖方先前违约而产生的权利。

 

   例 3  Each Party hereto agrees to keep this Agreement and the provisions hereof confidential and shall not disclose any information in relation to this Agreement (other than to its legal, financial or other advisers) except with the prior consent of all the other parties or save as otherwise required by law.

 

    协议各方同意,除了事先获得协议其他所有签约方同意或险工法律有相

反规定之外,对本协议以及协议条款予以保密,有关本协议的信息不得向外披露(但向律师、财务或其他顾问披露的除外)。

 

    例4  Both Parties agree, any disclosure of the Confidential Information to any other third party is not permitted save that such third party has the obligation to fulfill part of the Work herein and has committed to keep confidential the Confidential Information.

 

    双方同意,保密信息不得披露给任何第三方,但如果第三方有义务完成本协议下部分工作且承诺对保密信息保密的熊处。

 

   例5 Save in so far as it is legally or physically impossible, the SELLER shall provide the Site Assistance in strict accordance with PURCHASE ORDER to the satisfaction of the BUYER REPRESENTATIVE.

 

    除非在法律上或者事实上不可行,卖方应严格按照采购订单要求提供令

买方代表满意的现场服务。

 

6.“under’’

“under”在普通英文中表示“在……下”,但在英文合同中通常用
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